The Bush Vision of Outer Space
On January 14, 2004, President George Bush announced a new vision for the U.S. civil space program based upon exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond. Bush signed an Executive Order to create a Commission to examine and make recommendations on implementing this new vision chaired By Edward C. Pete Aldridge, Jr.
President Bushes vision calls for human and robotic missions to Moon, Mars, and beyond by completing the International Space Station, phasing out the Space Shuttle when the International Space Station is complete (about 2010), sending a robotic orbiter and lander to the Moon, sending a human expedition to the Moon as early as 2015, but no later than 2020, conducting robotic missions to Mars in preparation for a future human expedition; and conducting robotic exploration across the solar system.
In order to achieve the Presidents goals, the 60 page Commission report relies on public-private partnerships with significant private sector and international investment. The NASA Centers are to be reconfigured as Federally Funded Research and Development Centers to enable innovation, to work with the private sector, and to stimulate economic development. The report states that in order to sustain the long-term exploration of the solar system a robust space industry will be needed in which it will produce new products through the creation of new knowledge, and lead the world in invention and innovation. The author of The Martian Chronicles, Ray Bradbury, testified to the Commission about the importance of exploration.
The report explains that the goal of Americas current military strength and economic security rests on technological leadership and America will build and lead in technological skills. Furthermore, since it is a long-term goal, the Bush vision calls for a journey, not a race as he has invited other nations to join us on this journey, in the spirit of cooperation and friendship. The vision is a go as you can pay plan. In this regard, NASAs relationship to the private sector, its organizational structure, business culture, and management processes, must be decisively transformed to implement the new, multi-decadal space exploration vision. Private industry will have to have a far larger presence in space operations and for them to assume the primary role of providing services to NASA with regard to accessing low-Earth orbit. NASA has concluded 4000 agreements with over 100 nations and international organizations since its inception and over the last year, concluded 100 new international agreements.
Furthermore, the Commission believes that the commercialization of space should become a primary focus of the vision and that the creation of a space-based industry will be a benefit of the Bush vision. This is why NASA will rely on private industry to completely be responsible for and to develop the initial low-Earth orbit launch services.
In this regard, there is a race for space which includes a race for satellite communications, human flight, environmental satellites, earth observation satellites, nuclear power in space, and basically the control of space.
The United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space
Recently the 49th session of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space-COPULOS concluded their meetings in Vienna, Austria. The United Nations has a massive set of offices in Vienna which house the United Nations Office on Outer Space, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization. Furthermore, OPEC Is headquartered there.
But exactly WHAT is COPULOS? The United Nations has been involved in space since 1958 when it created the UN Outer Space Committee-UNOOSA to encourage peaceful uses of outer space. Since that time, it has held three Congresses: UNISPACE I in 1968, UNISPACE II in 1982 and UNISPACE in 1999. There are two committees that are part of UNOOSA: The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and Scientific and Technical Subcommittee. Furthermore, there is the Working group on the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space. Furthermore there is a growing body of Outer Space Law that is evolving.
At the 49th meeting of CUPULOS, the agenda items included ways and means of maintaining outer space for peaceful purposes, space for sustainable development, climate change, combating forest fires, food supply and natural disaster. Countries present testified as to what they were doing in outer space, and their positions on a number of relevant issues. For example, the representative from the Ukraine, discussed their position as leading space power, that it was important to maintain space for peaceful uses, they are in favor of drafting legislation to prevent the militarization of space, they endorsed space for sustainable development and the need for coordinated action with regard to sustainable development, the fact that they have endorsed four of the five space treaties and they support a legal international regime with ways to develop space law.
In 2007, the United Nations will celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the Space Age, the 50th Session of COPULOS and the 40th Anniversary of the UN Outer Space Treaty as well as the International Heliophysical Year.
Interestingly enough, in 1992 the United Nations held their UN Conference on the Environment and Development-UNCED in Rio de Janeiro. It was at this meeting the UN unveiled their evil Orwellian agenda for controlling the population of the world through a concept known as sustainable development and for controlling people through the UN Treaty on Biological Diversity which is now being implemented throughout the U.S. as Smart Growth. With regard to the UNOOSA, the United Nations declared 1992 to be the International Space Year.
UNOOSA did not hold any interest for me until doing some research on sustainable development. I learned that the United Nations Office on Outer Space had been given the responsibility to carry out the United Nations Millennium Development Goals and to carry out the work of sustainable development globally. What is the world does that really mean? In order to understand what is happening, we need to look at past history.
The space age began in 1957 when the Russian put men in orbit. By 1959, the
United Nations General Assembly adopted Resolution 1348 (XIII) which established
the Ad Hoc Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space which was transformed
by Resolution 1472 in 1959 into a permanent body-The Committee on the Peaceful
Uses of Outer Space-COPUS, which began with 18 members.
Today it has 68 members.
There are five major outer space agreements: (1) The Treaty on Principles of Governing Activities of Sates in Exploring and Uses of Outer Space including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies - known as the Outer Space Treaty. It was entered into force in 1967, (2) the Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts, and the Return of Objects into Outer Space, this is known as the Rescue Agreement which was entered into force in 1968 (3) the Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects which is known as the Liability Convention, entered into force in 1972, the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space (1976), and the Agreement Governing Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, entered into force in 1984. The U.S. has not ratified the last.
Today many organizations and special agencies within the United Nations rely on space for their projects: Food and Agriculture-FAO which established the Remote Sensing Centre in Rome in 1980 for surveying crops, providing early warning of adverse weather and natural disasters along with fisheries, forestry, rangelands, and agriculture; the International Maritime Organization-IMO is involved in satellite communications systems to aid navigation and provide distress alerts from ships as part of maritime search and rescue; the International Telecom Union provides technical expertise and other assistance in developing satellite communications; the United Nations Development Program has funded hundreds of space applications since 1964 and uses satellite imagery to report on and forecast the movements of desert locust swarms; UN Disaster Relief uses portable satellite transmitters to allow a relief officer on site in a disaster area to transmit detailed information about priority relief; United Nations Environmental Programme uses high-resolution satellite images to produce data for urban planning and management; the World Health Organization uses satellites to control vector-borne diseases in tropical countries and the World Maritime Organization tracks the weather through its World Weather Watch Program.
The figures for how many satellites are in orbit appear to differ. One sources said there are over 700 spacecraft in space with active satellites in lower earth orbit and higher earth orbit, However, the internet site, The Space Monitor said as of 2001, there were over 2,675 in outer space. The two top countries with satellites are the Commonwealth of Independent States with 1,335 and the U.S. with 741, followed by Japans 66 and Frances 31. China has 27 and India has 20. Top satellite corporations are: Iridium, Intelsat, Globalstar, Orbcom, and the European Space Agency.
The key players today in outer space are: The United States, Russia, the European Union, Japan, India and China. Because of the cost, many developing countries cannot afford to participate and this Committee reflects the problems of all of the UN: the rich against the poor, the developed nations against the developing. Many countries do not attend the meetings of CUPULOS because of cost and power.
Activities by various countries include: Brazil tried to launch a rocket in 2003 but it experienced rocket launch failure and killed 21 people. China has both civilian and military space technology with goals of developing an earth observation system, satellite navigation and positioning system, an independent telecommunications satellite network, and a complete satellite remote-sensing application system. Recently the U.S. began talks with China about space.
The U.S. helped India set up its rocket launch station in the 1960s and India and the U.S. have signed more than 100 space agreements in the past. In 1980, India became the ninth country and first developing nation to design and launch their own satellite. The U.S. recently signed an accord to cooperate with them on an unmanned moon mission and India plans to launch their first unmanned lunar mission in 2007-08. India has plans to go to the Moon and Mars.
Iran established its space agency in 2003 in order to conduct research, design and implementation in the field of space technology. While they currently have limited space capabilities, they have received technological help from Russia, China, North Korea, India and Italy.
Israel established their space agency in 1983 and in 1988, the U.S. and Israel developed the Arrow missile defense system through joint cooperation and funding. In 2005, they sold Arrow-2 technology to India which is the largest consumer of Israeli-manufactured weapons.
Japan became the fourth country to launch a satellite in 1970 and has been actively working with the U.S. on missile defense since 1999. They are proceeding with the development of a two-layer missile defense shield, using two U.S.-made systems: the sea based Aegis Standard Missile-3 and the land-based Patriot PAC-3.
Russia was the first country in space in 1957 with the successful launch of their Sputnik space vehicle. They have developed both advance launch vehicles and military space capabilities. Currently the U.S. and Russia are the two major partners in the International Space Station.
The United Kingdom was the sixth country to orbit a satellite in 1971. In 2003, the U.K. signed a Ballistic Missile Defense Cooperation Framework Memorandum of Understanding with the U.S. that represents the basis for U.S.-U.K. industrial collaboration on missile defense.
The United States was second in outer space. The 2006 budget stands at $16.5B which is far more than any other country with future expansions up to $25B by 2010. The U.S. Department of Defense oversees the U.S. military space programs and is responsible for military space operations and missile early warning and defense. The Air Force, Army, and Navy are major participants in military
The U.S. currently has close to 60 different types of space missions which include the following: Aqua (water) which is a NASA Earth Science satellite missions to collection information about the Earths water cycle, the Aura Mission dedicated to the health of Earths atmosphere, CALIPSO which will provide the next generation of climate observations, the Cassini-Huygens Mission to Saturn, CloudSat which is cloud-profiling the clouds; Cluster ESA/NASA to carry out 3D measurements in the Earths Magnetosphere, Earth Observing-1 to advance land imaging and unique spacecraft technologies, Expedition 13 to the International Space Station, Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer-FUSE Mission to take a look at light in the far ultraviolet portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer Mission to map the history of star formation in the Universe, the Hubble-to expand our knowledge of the cosmos, Jason to measure ocean surface topography, Mars Express to search for subsurface water from orbit, Mars Exploration Rovers to explore the Martian landscape, Mars Odyssey to map the mineralogy and morphology of the surface of Mars, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to determine whether long-standing bodies of water ever existed on Mars, the MESSENGER Mission to study Mercury, the New Horizons which began its journey across the solar system to conduct flyby studies of Pluto and its moon, Pioneer to journey through our solar system and beyond, Polar Mission to obtain data from both high-and low-altitude perspectives of the polar region of geospace, the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment to provide measurements of incoming x-ray, ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, and total solar radiation, the Space Shuttle, Swift to learn more about gamma-ray bursts, and the International Space Station.
Sustainable Development and the UN Millennium Development Goals
Interestingly enough, the U.S. has agreed with the role of space technology in meeting the goals of the World Summit on Sustainable Development-WSSD. There were 12 specific references incorporated into the document so that the observations of the earth from space would have a better understanding of earth and its systems. It was suggested by the outgoing president of CUPLOS, Dr. Abiodun from Nigeria that the UNOOSA should get closer to the UN Commission on Sustainable Development which has responsibility for carrying out AGENDA 21 from the 1992 Rio Earth Summit.
The US has endorsed the use of nuclear power in outer space and is developing a framework with the United Kingdom. They have held joint meetings with the IAEA on the objective, scope and general attributes of nuclear power. According to the U.S. representative to CUPULOS, a nuclear power source on a satellite can be as little as a shoe box or as large as a dining room table. There are a number of states that are concerned about nuclear power and what they see as the militarization of outer space. The U.S. does not agree with them and does not believe that the objectives of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space should be changed as a result.
Global Earth Observation System of Systems-GEOSS
Actions and decisions are coordinated and comprehensive for a sustained earth. Begun in 2005 with 19 countries and several international space NGOs confirmed. They will hold their first meeting in October in Vienna and adopt terms of reference and then implement a working plan. The purpose of GEOSS is to achieve comprehensive, coordinated and sustained observations on the earth system in order to improve an understanding of earths processes and enhance prediction of the behavior of the earth system.
Global Tsunami Warning System
Because the South Seas which was hit by a major tsunami in December, 2004 did not participate in the global tsunami warning system, at the UN 60th Anniversary meeting in 2005, there was discussion of both a regional Indian Ocean early warning system and a global early warning system. I did several interviews on the global warning systems. UN Undersecretary-General Robert Carr told me that there were seismic sensors in the bottom of the Indian Ocean but they are used for other purposes and that they needed to determine how to fuse various pieces together. I then asked Jan Egeland, UN Undersecretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator about a global system. He told me
Our aim is to have an early warning system across the globe against all major natural disasters: hurricanes, tsunami, droughts, etc. These early warning systems are slowly getting in place in more places.
I then asked him if it would include The Law of the Sea and outer space. He replied,
A system of monitoring seismic activities or monitoring which way the tsunami
going is special measures of the sea level associated with earthquakes. The most
challenging thing is, however, to warn the people and it would be a combinations of sirens, to radio to SMS, to all sorts of methods so that the poorest fishing village would be informed of the threat.
Lastly I asked him if once it was put in place if it would constitute a global FBI of the seas, he refused to answer.
DIMISCO is the proposed disaster management international space coordination entity that would be a one-stop to provide support to the disaster management community at large and a platform for fostering alliance, that it would be user driven and it would contribute to bridging the gap between the disaster management and space communities.
Satellites in Outer Space
There are many different types of satellites: (1) Astronomical satellites which are used for observation of distant planets, galaxies, and other outer space objects, (2) Communications satellites are artificial satellites stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications using radio at microwave frequencies. Most use geosynchronous orbits or near-geostationary orbits, (3) Earth observation satellites are satellites specifically designed to observe Earth form orbit, similar to reconnaissance satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making, etc., (4) Navigation satellites which use radio time signals transmitted to enable mobile receivers on the ground to determine their exact location, (5) Reconnaissance satellites are Earth observation satellites or communications satellites deployed for military or intelligence applications. Since most of their information is classified, we cannot know what they do, (6) Solar power satellites are proposed satellites built in high Earth orbit that use microwave power to
Beam solar power to very large antenna on Earth where it can be used in place of conventional power sources, weather satellites are used to monitor the weather, and then miniaturized satellites which are low weight and small, the nanosatellite is below 10 kg. Space stations are man-made structures designed for humans to live in outer space. The National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration-NOAA launched its first meterological satellites in 1960.
Earth observation satellites are used for hydrology, oceanography, management of coastal zones and agriculture, food security, forestry and deforestation, drought and desertification, land-use management, prospecting gas and oil reserves, ecosystem studies, environmental monitoring, early warning for disasters, monitoring and controlling forest fires, meteorology and weather monitoring, atmospheric circulation and air quality monitoring and forecasting, monitoring global climate change and greenhouse gases, monitoring ice sheets, high-resolution mapping, urban planning, transportation management, and aviation safety and humanitarian relief.
Satellites may orbit at almost any altitude. The space above earth is divided up into Low Earth Orbit, Medium Earth Orbit, Geosynchronous Orbit, Geostationary Orbit and High Earth Orbit. Satellite manufacturers include: Alcatel, EADS Astrium, Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Orbital Sciences, SS/Loral.
By 1991, major projects UN from space included: (1) The Enhanced Greenhouse Effect Detection Project - NASA, (2) The Global Stratospheric Ozone Project - NASA, (3) The Global Consequences of Land Cover Change Projects, (4) The World Forest Watch Project (Brazil) - EU, (5) The Global Satellite Image Mapping Project led by the Austrian Space Agency, and (6) The Global Change Encyclopedia Project (Canada).
U.S. Development of Outer Space
Man on the Moon
In 1961, just three weeks after Alan Shepard became the first American in space by flying the Mercury-Atlas 6 mission, President John F. Kennedy set a goal of humans landing on the moon and returning safely to Earth by the end of the decade. In setting this goal, he said, Now it is time to take longer strides-time for a great new American enterprise-time for this nation to take a clearly leading role in space achievement, which in many ways may hold the key to our future on Earth. In 1958, several years earlier, President Eisenhower set up the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-NASA which became home to the Space Task Group which was formed in November of that year. According to Dr. Bill Deagle, the word NASA is Hebrew for high and lifted up. On July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first of 12 men to walk on the moon, successfully meeting Kennedys challenge. To date, the U.S. has had 144 human space missions and has lost 17 astronauts
In 1945 scientist Arthur C. Clarke had written a scientific paper concerning the establishment of a worldwide communications system by placing three satellites at equidistant locations in the geosynchronous belt. This idea was put into action when President Kennedy signed legislation to create the Communications Satellite Corporation-COMSAT on August 31, 1969. COMSATs first mission was to establish a world-wide communications network to promote world peace and understanding.
The International Telecommunications Satellite Organization-Intelsat was organized on August 20, 1964. It currently has 125 nation members consisting of governments or communication entities designated by governments to oversee communications requirements. These organizations use 19 satellites located in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans to provide international links to 180 nations, domestic links to 40 countries and 900 separate ground stations. These provide for 70,000 hours of television and 133,000 channels for telephone calls. Recently Intelsat purchased one of the worlds four global providers of satellite services, PanAmSat, which will give the new company a combined fleet of 51 satellites that will reach 99% of the worlds populated areas. What we are seeing is the control of space through governmental organizations.
The GIS system was a major development and is used for estimating agricultural production, soils, weather, historical agricultural statistics, cropping intensity and a vegetative index derived from remote sensing.
The International Space Station-ISS
Originally proposed by President Ronald Reagan, the United States is the lead country in the development of the International Space Station-ISS. A joint partnership between the United States, Canada, 11 members of the European Space Agency (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the U.K.), Japan, and Russia, its mission, we are told, is scientific. The ISS will be put in space in three phases. The first phase was the Shuttle-Mir Program which began in 1995 and involved two years of continuous stays by astronauts aboard the Russian Mir Space Station and nine shuttle docking missions. Phase 2 is the assembly of the U.S. and Russian components which are needed to begin research and the final phase consists of outfitting it with the European, Japanese, and Canadian contributions.
The ISS began in November, 1998 with the launch of the Russian-built, U.S. owned Zarya Control Module. A month later on December 4, 1998, the U.S. Unity Node was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor. When completed, the station will include about eight large cylindrical sections called modules. Each module is being launched from Earth separately and then astronauts and cosmonauts are connecting the sections in space. Eight solar panels will supply more than 100 kilowatts of electric power to the station. Each panel is 360 feet long. The U.S. and Russia are providing most of the modules and equipment. More than 80 flights of U.S. space shuttles and Russian rockets will be needed to complete the space station.
The ISS is the largest and most complex international scientific project in history. When it is complete, it will weigh over one million pounds and measure 356 feet across and 290 feet long with an acre of solar panels to provide up to 110 kilowatts of power to six state-of-the-art laboratories.
Currently the space station is half-built and can carry on some experiments but the science of the mission has changed to support President Bushes vision of Moon, Mars and Beyond. On July 4, 2006, the space shuttle Discovery lifted off for the International Space Station from Launch pad 39B for a 13-day mission. This is the second time since Columbia disintegrated over Texas on February 1, 2003 that the U.S. has gone to the space station. NASA intends to fly the shuttle 17 more times to finish assembly of the space station before retiring it in 2010. Another shuttle, Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled for liftoff on August 28.
According to the Washington Post, 6/29/06, the state has been in a caretaker state with a two man crew consisting of one American and one Russian who have been keeping vital operating systems running. The space station has been re-supplied by the Russians up until now.
The U.S. Space Policy Project
The U.S. Space Policy Project promotes American national security and international stability by providing the public and decision-makers with information and analysis on civil and military space issues, policies, and programs. It website: www.fas.org keeps track of the activities of the worlds space agencies. The Project is dedicated to increasing international cooperation in space as a means of improving global cooperation to solve problems on earth. The World of the Space Policy Project is supported by the Scherman Foundation, the John Merck Fund, the W. Alton Jones Foundation, and other individual contributors.
Spiritual Aspects of Outer Space
As we consider outer space, perhaps it would be good to understand that one of Satans name is the Prince of the power of the air. When we consider this title, we can see how outer space, communications, television, satellites, etc. all come under this aegis.
According to Dr. Bill Deagle, The U.S. controls every cubic inch of space. We are so far advanced in outer space that no country in their right mind will do war with us. He says that the U.S. has been mining the Moon for years and that it is the goal of the U.S. Space Command Center in Colorado to achieve total prescience in space, land, sea, and air.
According to writer John Christian, operations of NASA have been long dominated by the American Masonic Lodge. He reports in his book on The Secrets of the Alpha Course,
Colonel Edwin Buzz Aldrin, who supposedly participated in the moon
landing was a high degree Freemason and was initiated into the Craft in Montclair
Lodge No. 144 in New Jersey.
There is a secret crypt beneath the House of the Temple of the Supreme Council, Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, Southern Jurisdiction, located at 1733 Sixteenth Street, N.W., Washington, D. C. dedicated to the Apollo II moon landing event. Col. Edwin Aldrin had Inge R. Baum, the House of the Temple Scottish Rite Librarian and historian, make an embroidered banner for him to display while being photographed for the event. All these icons are now on display in the crypt. (this author was given a personal tour by Mr. Baum.)
Virtually all of NASAs space missions are timed to occur around major satanic feasts over the full and new moons. For example, the Apollo spacecraft fire occurred on January 27, 1967 (full moon, January 26, 1967), the Challenger exploded on January 28, 1986, (full moon, January 26, 1986), and the space shuttle Columbia disintegrated on February 1, 2003 (new moon February 1, 2003) after having been launched on February 16, 2003 (full moon, February 18, 2003).
In conclusion, the Bible tells us that God is all knowing, all powerful and present everywhere. It is astounding and shocking to understand that man has been able to duplicate God and take His place. With thousands of satellites recording every move around the world by trees, birds, the oceans, ants, and humans, the idea of privacy has been given over to a new god. Of course we are told that everything that is occurring in outer space is good and for science and the advancement of human kind. Unfortunately, whoever controls space controls the world which includes you and me. This new and last frontier is really quite frightening and destroys the idea of freedom, liberty and privacy.
Note: Websites consulted include: www.nasa.gov, www.unoosa.org, and www.globalissues.org.
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