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The Road to Sustainable Development:

A Snapshot of Activities in The USA

The President's Council on Sustainable Development

March, 1997

Jonathan Lash, the Co-Chair of the PSCD was in Rio.


"In 1992, the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED_ issued an urgent call to nations around the world to address the challenges of sustainable development. The United States and its international partners have begun to respond by examining the steps they must take to "meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (Our Common Future, p.8) It is already clear that true success will depend on our ability to build global partnerships and to draw upon the collective ingenuity, resources, and energy of all sectors of society.


1/3 industry, 1/3 government and 1/3 from environment, civil rights and Native American organizations.

The Council held four of its meetings outside of Washington, D. C.:

  • Seattle, WA in 1/94
  • Chicago, IL 7/94
  • Chattanooga, TN in 1/95
  • San Francisco 4/95

    "The Council continues to receive a warm welcome as it carries the message of sustainability to communities across the country...."


    "As stated in the Council's first report, 'some things must grow--jobs, productivity, wages, profits, capital and savings, information, knowledge, education--and others--pollution, waste, poverty, energy and material use per unit of output--must not.'"

    Clean Air Act in 1972

    Clean Water Act in 1972 - Both have improved overall productivity while also reducing the impacts of pollution on human health, the environment, and natural resources.

    The Council encountered a number of specific industry efforts to improve both environmental performance and economic productivity...Others relate to the relatively new idea of eco-industrial parts-- a combination of business that cooperate with each other and with the local community to efficiently share resources (information, materials, water, energy, infrastructure, and natural habitat,) leading to economic gains, improved environmental quality and [the] equitable enhancement of human resources for the business and [the] local community."

    1. Extended Product Responsibility

      EPR stresses the idea of shared responsibility--among suppliers, manufacturers, and consumers--for reducing the environmental impacts of products throughout their life cycles.

    2. The Evergreen Program -

      Manufactures assume RESPONSIBILITY FOR A PRODUCT THROUGH THE END OF ITS USEFUL LIFE AND TO PROVIDE A TRADITIONAL PRODUCT AS PART OF A CUSTOMER SERVICE PACKAGE. Instead of buying a whole carpet, people--commercial and institutional customers lease the services of replaceable carpet tiles without having to take responsibility for disposal when they become worn. Instead of buying and replacing entire flooring systems, customers prolong the life of the flooring by replacing individual tiles as needed.

    3. America Recycles Aerosols

      S.C. Johnson along with the Steel Recycling Institute, WMX Technologies, and others since 1991, collect steel cans as part of recycling. By recycling the 3 billion aerosols produced annually in the U.S., we could potentially build 160,000 cars and save the energy-equivalency of 5.7 million barrels of oil.

    4. Vehicle Recycling Partnership

      The U.S. Council of Automotive Research has established a consortia among Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation known a the Vehicle Recycling Partnership (VRP). This Partnership involves U.S. automotive manufactures, as well as "upstream" suppliers and "downstream" vehicle recyclers. The VRP has already resulted in design changes by the three big auto makers that will increase the potential recyclability of automobiles....


      ...[T]he Council recommended that "federal and state agencies assist communities that want to create eco-industrial parks....[as] models of industrial efficiency.,..." An eco-industrial park is a group of businesses that work together and with the community to efficiently share resources (materials, water, energy, infrastructure, natural habitat, and information), exchange economic prosperity and improve the environment. Eco-industrial parks can be initiated by a community, local government, a non-profit organization or a business, but their success often depends on broad multi-stakerholder support and collaboration.

      a. Three Types of eco-industrial parks:

      (1) Zero-emissions eco-industrial park in which a group of businesses are co-located and work together to reduce or eliminate emissions and wastes;

      (2) a virtual eco-industrial park, in which businesses are geographically separate, but work together to minimize their impact on the environment and

      (3) eco-development in which nonindustrial establishments apply the principles of INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY.

      The newly evolving areas of economic development is only beginning to be tested in practice....




    Funding is being received from local, regional, state and federal sources, and the project will be managed by the Northampton County Department of Sustainable Economic Development/Joint Industrial Development Authority. EFFORTS WILL FOCUS ON RECRUITING COMPATIBLE COMPANIES AND ON DEVELOPING AN EFFECTIVE PROCESS F0R MANAGING THE PARK AS AN INDUSTRIAL ECOSYSTEM development--

    2. Riverside Eco Park in Burlington, Vermont

    This will create an agricultural-industrial park in an urban setting which will (1) generate electricity using bi-mass technologies (2) use the waste heat generated by the power plant to support the greenhouse production of fish and horticultural products (3) use biologically-based "living systems" to digest liquid organic wastes (4) recycle and compost the area's waste foodstuffs and year debris to replenish local soils, increase agricultural production and support value-added organic food industry. Support is through:

    a Community Development Block Grant

    the Burlington Electric Department

    Department of Public Works

    Cornell University

    Funding applications has been submitted to EPA and DOE.

    3. Automotive Technologies

    In September, 1993, Al Gore and the CEOs of Chrysler, Ford and General Motors announced the formation of the Partnership fora New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). This public-private partnership is focused on developing a car that is three times more efficient than today's comparable vehicle; promoting commercially viable, near-term innovation, and improving national competitiveness. From

    the perspective of both the government and the private sector, the PNGV is an historic undertaking. It is laying new ground in building partnerships among government and three of the strongest competing companies in the nation. Good progress is being made on many projects, but much more R&D work remains to be done. p.14


    NGOS and academic institutions are playing an important role in demonstrating sustainable practices "on the ground." NGOs are reaching out to their members, to businesses, and to the general public to recreate the broad-based foundation that is essential....

    "America's business face unprecedented challenges today as they compete in the global marketplace.....At the same time, they are faced with meeting environmental standards and with the need to provide the public with products and services that serve their needs....Increasingly, businesses are finding that NGOs and communities can be important partners as the work to create a truly sustainable economy." P.16

    1. Great Printers Project

    NGOs are beginning tow work with small businesses to meet the challenges to say in business and to comply with a maze of environmental regulations. 80% of the print shops in the U.S. employ fewer than 20 people. The printing process involves a number of toxic chemicals....

    In 1993, the Environmental Defense Fund and the Council of Great Lakes Governors joined with representatives from the printing industry to establish the Great Printers Project. The EPA and state regulatory agencies also participated in the project. The partnership among EDF, the Council of Great Lakes Governors and the printing industry was essential in breaking down the traditional distrust between printers and regulators....

    2. Alliance for Environmental Innovation

    In 1995, the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) and The Pew Charitable Trusts jointly established the Alliance for Environmental Innovation with funding from Pew, other foundations, and individuals. The alliance's mission is to work in partnership with major American corporations to reduce waster, prevent pollution, and conserve resources....

    Staff from the Alliance and its partner companies are conducting projects to identify key environmental issues, analyze the economic performance and functionality of potential solutions....In August, 1996, the Alliance and S.C. John & Son, Inc. embarked on the Alliance's first project to help further integrate environmental considerations in to the creation and production of the company's leading household brands.

    3. Sustainable Management of Forested Wetlands

    The Nature Conservancy and Georgia-Pacific have embarked on an unprecedented collaborative effort to manage forested wetlands along the lower Ronaoke river in North Carolina. G-P has agreed to relinquish its harvesting rights on 21,000 acres of land that are of special ecosystem concern.

    4. Working with Communities - Architecture for the Future

    The AIA represents interest of over 56,000 architects and allied members. Its Committee on the Environment provides a forum for compiling, exchanging, and disseminating the environmental information that is essential to creating sustainable buildings and communities.

    5. Education

    Arizona International Campus - University of Arizona in Tucson. It is the only undergraduate fully- accredited institution that focuses on integrating sustainable development concepts into a liberal arts education. it has strong interest in international sustainability issues and is now in the process of establishing study sites aborad in Mexico and China. Each AIC student is required to become proficient in a second language.

    6. U.S. Business Schools



    Federal agencies are beginning to adopt multi-disciplinary and integrated approaches in fulfilling their missions and developing new partnerships with other agencies (federal, stated, and local), businesses, NGOS, academic institutions, and communities to make the most of available resources.

    1. White House Interagency Working Group on Sustainable Development

    Comprised of Gore, Kathleen McGinty (Chair on Council on Environmental Quality, and Laura Tyson to co-chair this group. Will share information on sustainable development between agencies.

    2. Other Federal Interagency Working Groups

    A number of federal agencies pledged to carry out specific activities to implement the Council's recommendations. They have focused on:

    a) Education for sustainability

    b) Materials and energy flows

    c) Sustainable development indicators

    (a). Education for Sustainability Working Group

    The Education for Sustainability Working Group provides a forum for federal agencies to work together in coordinating and implementing education programs that further sustainability concepts and approaches. In 12/96, published Education for

    Sustainability: An Agenda for Action with National Science and Technology Council in San Francisco, CA.

    b Working Group on Sustainable Development Indicators

    The Working Group on S.D.I. has developed a conceptual framework for indicators of sustainable development, and it will publish an initial selection for important indicators in the spring of 1997.

    --The indicators are intended to reflect the intergenerational nature of sustainable development and the integration of economic, environmental, and social issues. - The group has met with young people, major corporations, NGOs and community organizations.

    c. Working Group on Materials and Energy Flows

    The Working Group on Materials and Energy Flows is co-chaired by the President's Council on Environmental Quality and the W.H. Office of Science and Technology Policy.

    Provides a point of contact for industry, academia, NGO's and state and local governments who are interested in collaborating with federal agencies for more effective use of energy and materials.

    The Working Group is developing a comprehensive inventory of federal databases on materials and energy flows and will publish a report in spring, 1997.

    3 Federal Offices of Sustainable Development

    Several federal agencies have established new offices to further sustainability goals in the context of their respective missions: U.S. Departments of Commerce, Energy and Agriculture.

    a. Office of Sustainable Development and Intergovernmental Affairs, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce

    This was established in 1933 by Ron Brown. It has two primary functions:

    (1) to assist communities that have been affected by the collapse of certain fisheries by designing and implementing strategies to rebuild the fisheries and foster the communities' long-term economic prosperity (Rebuild Fisheries)

    (2) to further the development of government-wide sustainability approaches And policies by working with the PCSD and other organizations and agencies.

    b. Center of Excellence for Sustainable Communities, U.S. Department of Energy

    The Center's mission is to provide all types of communities--cities, villages, towns, neighborhoods, national parks, industrial parks, and others--with information and assistance in designing and implementing sustainable development strategies.

    c. Director of sustainable Development and the Council on Sustainable Development,


    On 9/13/96, Sec. of Agriculture Dan Glickman signed a departmental memorandum on sustainable development that committed the Department of Agriculture to balance the "goals of improved production and profitability, stewardship of the natural resource base and ecological systems and the enhancement of the vitality of rural communities." Sustainable principles have to be incorporated into all appropriate regulations, policies, programs, strategic plans, and performance appraisals.''

    The Department will have a "Director of Sustainable Development" to lead all efforts.

    d. Education - The Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Initiate in 1994 by Al Gore and supported by: national Science Foundation, U.S. Department of Education, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, DOC/NOAA and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Designed to link students, teachers and

    scientists around the world in a study of the global environment. Students will post their findings to experiments on Internet. Program currently has 100,000 students in over 3400 schools in 47 countries. The U.S. government investment through the creation of U.S. GLOBE "franchises" established on a no-exchange-of-funds basis by school districts, science centers, state departments of education, and universities across the country.

    (1) Technology Learning Challenge

    In 1994, the U.S. Dept. of Ed. announced availability of Technology Learning Challenge grants to support educators, parents, industry partners, and community leaders in preparing schools for the technological challenges of the next century. The Department awards $9.5 million to 19 communities a year.

    (2) Sustainable Development Extension Network

    Federal extension services provide a ready mechanism for disseminating and exchanging information about sustainable development. A national community Sustainable Development Extension Network is now being established to utilize federal extension services to address community needs concerning sustainability. Agencies involved: USDA Cooperative Extension System, DOC/NOAA Sea Grant Marine Advisory Service, the DOC/Technology Administration (A) Manufacturing Extension Partnership, NASA, SBA, Small Business Development Centers, and EPA. Purpose is the EDUCATION COMMUNITIES ABOUT SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.



    1. Industries of the Future

    The DOE Industries of the Future Program is designed to leverage scare R&D resources by investing in areas that have potentially high payoffs for the public or in areas too risky for individual companies to assume the risks alone. Program focuses on seven areas for improvement to the economy:

  • Forest and paper
  • Steel
  • Aluminum
  • Metal Casting
  • Glass
  • Chemicals and Petroleum refining

    Under the program industry participants will develop a vision that reflects market, business, social, and regulatory considerations within their sector. DOE facilitates this visioning exercise then draws up from the vision plan to develop a portfolio of near-, medium, and long-term technological research, development and deployment activities.

    2. Manufacturing Extension Partnership

    The DOC/TA Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) helps small and medium-sized businesses adopt new technologies.

    3. Rapid Commercialization Initiative

    Established by the Depart of Commercia/Technology Admin. in cooperation with DOD and federal agencies to help bring environmental technologies to market more rapidly and efficiently. RCI should make a tangible diff. in helping companies overcome several major hurdles in commercializing their newly developed technologies.

    4. National Environmental Technology Strategy

    In 4/95, the National Science and Technology Council released the National Environmental Technology Strategy. NS is a cabinet-level council chaired by the president which is responsible for coordinating science, space, and technology policies throughout the

    government. The NETS was developed over a two-year period, with input from Congress, the states, communities, industry, academia, NGOs and interested citizens. It builds on an earlier document, Technology for a Sustainable Future.

    Builds on 5 themes: performance, flexibility, accountability, innovation for

    environmental results, commercialization, sustainable communities, learning and

    working together.


    Metropolitan regions have become the fundamental building block of the U.S. and are essential to prosperity in the global competitive marketplace. Over 80% of America's population lives and works in metropolitan regions and over 90% of new jobs are created there. Therefore, the Government has designed the following:

    1. Metropolitan Economic Strategy

    HUD: America's New Economy and the Challenge of the Cities.

    America's economy is being driven by the following :

  • entertainment and tourism
  • housing and construction
  • financial services
  • agriculture and food processing
  • industrial supplies,
  • apparel and textiles
  • printing and publishing
  • consumer goods
  • aerospace and defense..
  • health services
  • business and professional services
  • transportation and trade services
  • electronics and communications
  • material supplies
  • transportation equipment
  • medical products
  • natural resources
  • industrial machinery

    In 114 regional centers, HUD brought civic leaders from across the region with jointly developed metropolitan economic strategies, linking the cities and suburbs and the public and private sectors. Included: transportation and infrastructure, education and workforce development, research and development, advanced technologies, trade promotion and market development, economic and community revitalization, and environmental restoration and preservation. The successful strategies included efforts to improve air and water quality, build regional transit systems, revitalize brownfields, maintain parks, and conserve natural habitat.

    2. Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act

    "Transportation relates to many elements of sustainable development--from providing all citizens with equal access to economic and social opportunities to land use and air quality. the ISTEA, the DOT helps communities improve transportation services which integrating economic development, land use, and social concerns into local planning processes.

    ISTEA has also strengthened regional partnerships--involving federal, state, and local governments; metropolitan planning organizations; and the private sector--and become a model for solving cross-jurisdictional problems such as sprawl, congestion, and air pollution. The Act has helped communities...invest in mass transit.

    3. Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Initiative

    Cities have deteriorating urban centers and pressures to develop surrounding "greenfields" and create jobs and home. Inner cities have abandoned, idled or under-used industrial and commercial properties where redevelopment is hindered by real/perceived environmental contamination. They are known as "brownfields"

    EPA developed "Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Initiative" to help assess, clean up, and reuse brownfields. EPA has awarded 78 Brownfields Assessment Pilots to communities and states and will provide $5 million for 25 additional projects. The Brownfields National Partnership Action Agenda will be announced by the Clinton Admin. the end of March, 1997.

    In March, 1996, Clinton proposed a brownfields tax incentive that would leverage up to $10B private investment and could return 30,000 brownfields to productive sue. EPA is now working with the Treasury Department on this.

    4. Overall Economic Development Program

    OVER OVER 30 YEARS, the DOE Economic Development Admin has supported community driven, strategic planning processes through the Overall Economic Development Program. This support has helped citizens:

    a. identify key issues

    b. develop a vision

    c. set goals and benchmark

    d. determine actions to improve their communities

    e. evaluate their achievements

    In order to quality for EDA assistance, communities must have an approved "Overall Economic Development Program." Their multi-stakeholder process of developing an OEDP requires community input and involvement, and it is designed to ensure that the federal government working in partnership with communities to help them address their needs. They (EDP provides assistance to 315 multi-county Economic Development Districts and 65 Indian Tribes.

    5. Empowerment Zones/enterprise communities

    This is a federal program that fosters community-based partnerships with federal and state agencies to renew and revitalize urban and rural communities around the country. Funds provided help communities to carry out development projects that provide jobs, new infrastructure, housing education and training, and/or a range of social services.

    In 1994, HUD designated 6 urban Empower Zones, 2 Supplement Empowerment Zones, 4 Enhanced Enterprise Communities and 60 Enterprise Communities.

    6. Sustainable Development Challenge Grant Program (PPP)

    Part of the National Performance Review's Reinventing Environmental Regulation initaitive. The EPA provides grants to local, state or tribal governments, NGOs, community groups and universities to catalyze local and regional projects that simultaneous promote economic prosperity, protect the environment and provide equitable opportunities to all parts of society. ..designed to leverage additional private and public sector investment and to increase a communities long-term capacity for realizing sustainable development.

    7. Northwest Forest Plan

    In July, 1993, the Clinton Admin. released the Northwest Forest Plan which protects most, not all of the regions old'growth forests, habitat for the spotted owl, salmon and other species dependent on the forests by establishing protected corridors along streams and reserves in which logging is prohibited. The plan sets aside parcels of and that are to be managed as "Adaptive Management Areas" which are used by community participants--enviromental organizations and timber groups--to develop and test new management approaches to achieve the regions social, economic and environmental objectives.

    8. Mojave Desert Ecosystem Initiative

    In 1994, the DOD and DOI initiated a major ecosystem mangement planning iniative in the Mojave Desert. the DOD conduts most of its large-sare unit traning exercises and major weapons systems tests in the Mojave and Ft. Irwin will be expanded to suppo0rt future joint military training.

    The Mojave Desert Initiative provides a framework for DOD and DOI to implement a regional appraoch to conservation. It provides for a mechanism for DOD land mangement and trainers to assess the quality of their lands, determine the enviromental impacts of military exerciess, etc.

    DOD invested $2.5 million for 1994 and 1995 to support the first phases of the Mojave Desert Ecosystem Iniative. Money will be used to purchase a geographic iformation ssystem (GIS) develop an annotated bibliography of available data, etc.

    9. The 1996 Farm Bill

    This bill has a number of provisions to implement the PCSD and coordinate the economic, environmental and social goals. They are as follows:

    a. The Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) (ppp)

    Voluntary program that provides cost-shring, incentive payments, technical assistance and educational assistance to producers for adopting conservation systems designed to protect and improve enviromental quality. Being carried out through a partnership between USDA, Natrual Resoruces Conservation Service and USDA Farm Service Agency and relevant others. EQIP also intended to assist producers in complying with enviromental laws and "encouraging enviromental enhancement."

    b. Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program (WHIP) (ppp)

    Authorizes $50 million over the next 7 years to provide cost-shared assistance to local landowners and users who create or restore wildlife habitat. The Sec. of Agriculture will seek to enroll enviromentally sensitive cropland into the CRP under 10 year contracts. Participants will receive an annual rental payment and will be given cost-shared assistance to enroll the land in "conservation crops" such as wildlife habitat.

    c. Wetland Reserve Program (ppp)

    A voluntary program to restore and protect wetlands on private property. Operated by USDA/NRCS, in consultation with other federal agencies and provides opportunity for landowners to retire marginal agricultural lands in excahnge for financial incentives to enhance wetlands. Under the Program, land owners may sell a conservation easement or enter into a shared=cost contract with USDA to restore and maintain the wetlands while retaining private ownership.

    10. Southern Appalachian Assessment (ppp)

    This is a cooperative, interagency analysis program designed to provde beter infomation about biologial, physical and socio-economic resources in the Soutehrn Appalachian region. Partners include: USDA,Forest Service, DOI Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service and National Biological Service, TVA, DOE Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the DOC Ecoomic Development Administraiton, the Army Corps of Engineers, and the states of Georgia, North Carolina and Tennessee. Have 4 themes: (1) terrestial (2) aquatic (3) air quality and (4) social/cultural/economic. The partners have formed teams to address...public involvement and data base management.

    The SAA is prvoding information on Southern Appalachian lands, resources, people and management approaches which can be used for comprehensive planning, research, and information pruposes.

    11. Rebuilding Fisheries

    Building sustainable fisheries means that the status of resources must be carefully balanced. NOAA provided guaranteed loans to fisherman through the Fishing Vessel Obligation Guarantee Program and established the Fishing Industry Grants Program which provided grants to fisherman for the development of aquaculture, the pursuit of alternative economic opportuities, and the exploration of underutilized species.

    In 1994, $12 million was provided to instittue a Northwest Emergency Assistance Program to help those communities affected by the collapse of salmon stocks. Money was provided for data collection in washington, Oregon and California.


    1. The Greening of the White House

    On Earth Day, 1993, Clinton anounced the beginning of the Greening of the W.H. a comprehensive, multi-year project to improve energy efficiency and cut wastes. The project is being carried out by DOE Federal Energy Management Program and DOI National Park Service. 98% of windows in Old Executive Office Building replaced with more energy-efficient double- glazed film units. State-of-the-art heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system is being installed in the Exeuctive residence. A condensation heat recovery system will be used to capture waste heat and will be used to heat hot water.

    2. Recycling Undeliverable Junk Mail

    In 1/97, the Postal Service awarded a 5 year contract to Southest Paper Recycling in Atlanta to collect and recycle undelivrable junk mail from 200 post offices and 2 mail processing plants in northern Georgia.


    1. Project XL (ppp)

    The EPA has used strict command and control regulatory approaches to protect and improve environmental quality. As part of government-wide reinvention iniative, the EPA has designed Project DL to respond to industries, communities and government agencies that had found the routine application of federal environmental regulations did not always provide the best solutions to enviromental problems. It gives environmental leaders more flexibility to test creative, common sense ways of achieving superior enviormental performance a their facilities and communities.

    The EPA has and are negotiating agreements with 41 facilities and 6 commuities. Of these, 14 facility project sponsors and 1 community sponsor are negotiating agreements with the Agency....

    2. Common Sense Initiative (CSI) (ppp)

    The Commno Sense Initiative, is an EPA-sponsored effot beig used to test innovative, flexible solutions to enviormental problems and to improve the cost effectiveness of the existing regulatory system while continuting to protect and restore the enviorment. Under the Federal Advisory Committee ACT, CSI brings representatives of government, industry, enviromental organizations and community groups together to design "clearner, cheaper, smarter" approaches to enviromental protection on an industry-by-industry basis.

    3. Improving Environmental Performance at Military Installations DOD and EPA have launched a pilot progrm t6o demonstrate that alterative environmental management strategies can be used at DOD inwstallations to prodie a cleaner, healthier enviroment, while reducing costs. Under ENVVEST, military installations cna propose a combination of actions that achieve overalol enviromental peformance.


    1. Pacific Northwest Regional Council - PNRC (ppp)

    Community leaders in the Northwest established the PNRC to implement the PCSD's recomm. at the regioal level. They have engaged in an emerging economic partnership with Canada and Pacific Rim countries. A number of states, tribes, commuiies, businesses and organizations in the region have demonstrated extraordinary leadership in fostering sustainable approaches to development. Th 28 member Regional Council is to foster regional cooperation among federal and state agenices, tribal governments, businesses, NGOs and ommunities as they work to promote sustainable development.

    The Regional Council will work in partnership with national-level organizations.....

    2. STATES

    a. Minnesota

    1993, governor of stte + state Enviromental Quality board appointed 105 individuals to develop a long-range VISION for MN that is sustainable. Focused on settlement, manufacturing, agriculture, energy, forestry, minerals and recreation--and its findings were summarized in Challenges for Sustainable MN which led to public education and change in state legislation. In 1995, state passed the Sustainable Forest sourcs Act which calls for the formation of public-private partnerships to protect and manage MN forest ecosystems. They passed the Metropolitan Livable Communities Act which established a multi-million dollar program to redevelop brownfields and set up affordable housing.

    In 1996, state passed sus. development legislation that encourages state agencies to incorporate sustainability into their activities and to develop a sustainability guide for local communities, including model ordinances, to encourage local government to take a broader-than-usual view of problems and potential solutions. In addition they have the Minnesota Sus. Deve. Initiative to oversee a government-wide assessment of how well each state agency or program is doing in implementing the sutainability principles developed by the Governors Roundtable.


    b. Oregon

    The state legislature set up the Oregon Progress Board which is chaired by the governor and charged with developing a vision for the future of Oregon and assessing proghress in realzing this vision. The Board selected 259 benchmarks.


    1. Sarasota, FL

    Citizens organized planning groups such as the Community Goals Council int he mid-60s and the American Assembly int he 1970s to address econoim and enviromental concerns. In 1989, the city entered into a public-private partnership with the Sarasota County Cooperative Extension Service to establish the nonprofit Florida House Foundation and Florida House Learning Center. The Foundation is for the house and offers low-cost mortgages for new houses that implement enviromentally sound technologies. The Learning Center provides a forum for residents to discuss sustainability issues and serves as a catalyst for economic redevelopment. Since 1990, the city has conducted 3 conference on community sustainability which address urban growth. They have develped the Sarasota Vision Plan to guide development to 2040.

    2. Pattonsburg, MO

    When the midwest floods of 1993 nearly destroyed this town, they joined together to relocate the town to higher ground and incorporate the principals and technologies of sustainable development. They adopted a Charter of Sustainability--guide to development and building cods. The town is pedestrian firendly and to maximize the southern exposure to each home, make it possible to use passive solar heating.

    3. St. Louis, MO

    The Bi-state metropolitan planning organization, East-West Gateway Coordinating Council, has developed a 20-year regional transportation plan and is iimplementing it. It provides a framework for linking the region's transporations investments with the economic, enviromental and social needs of the country. One project is designed to

    4. Cleveland, OH

    Call HUD for America's New Economy and the Challenge of the Cities